what is Human Rights? Every human being born on the planet called planet Earth has become rich from natural right. Such rights are not a gift given by the government or donations given by the government. Human rights are essentially a centralization of moral laws, which are the accumulated work of our own religious rituals, we must maintain the dignity of human rights of others, that is, deal with everyone in a dignified manner, so that we all deal with the same,
Since ancient times, there has been a spirit of hostility and revenge among human beings, and we are witness to the inhuman and cruelty of the ruling party on innocent people based on caste, caste, sex and birth place. During the first and second world wars, man had to struggle for himself due to man’s brutality and violent instincts. The animals were treated poorly even than animals.In view of all this, intellectuals of the world have been accustomed to think that if a person does not respect other human beings in the same way as a result of the consequences of the worst results in the future, as a result of human rights development, different 20 documents, Rights, agreements, explanations, declarations, treaties, human rights, economic, social, political, civil, ethics etc.
Thus awareness about human rights is significantly higher than the progress. Generally, the nation is happy with the way the nation behaves with its citizens. In general, the intervention of other countries is not acceptable. But, human welfare is the ultimate goal and therefore the United Nations members have been convinced that protecting human rights is a fundamental issue.
The first documented use of human rights was made in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the United Nations on 25-6-1945 after World War II. Later, most signatories were ratified in October of that year. On December 10, 1948, the United Nations declared the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, every day since the day it was audited as “Universal Declaration of Human rights-1948”, we celebrate this day as “Human Rights Day”.
The concept and emergence of human rights:
The primary purpose of human rights was to limit the state’s oppressive power. So this concept was limited to that state. Initially this concept was only for the people of the upper class. In the 13th century (1215 AD) the well-known Magnacarte was also to protect the rights of the aged. There were very few provisions that apply to all the people. In 1689, some of the autographs were made public for the rights of the citizens by the Bill of Rights.In 1176, the American people also declared some unreliable human rights in their declaration of independence. French Revolutionism In France, human rights declarations stated that ‘humans are born free, free and equal in rights
The concept of human rights was legally first revealed in the laws of abolition of Britain, France, and Denmark. The primary purpose of the concept of human rights was to protect the public against the criminal laws and policies of the state. But for the freedom of the French Revolution, the Revolution Revolution, the Second World War, and during that time and thereafter, many countries have developed such an idea that the human activities should remain in all the activities of the state.The state should not be persecuted by human beings. Some rights are of humanity that the state can never break or state must protect it. These rights are also referred to as natural rights or natural rights. These rights have been recognized for human development purposes for the purpose of development. It is the duty of every state to protect this right even if the right to safety is not recognized.
Right to equality is a human right. It is recognized in Article 14 of our Constitution. This right indicates that socially no human should not be high or low. It should not discriminate against anyone on the basis of religion, caste, caste. The way a person belongs to a minority caste, there should be an equal deal with him as well, so also there should be no discrimination between man and woman.
The concept of human rights is part of international law. The concept of human rights has become accepted by all countries without restrictions of the country’s border. Any human, human rights can be fully occupied only when its minimum human needs such as wool, clothes, building are completed. Human rights do not mean hunger, unemployment, poverty prevails.There are millions of people living below the poverty line, economic unequalities, unemployment, starvation, poverty, and poverty line in our country and human rights remain on paper only because our constitution or any law does not involve the right to work.
The right to exploit is the same human right. Even after 56 years of independence, women are refused jobs in some places. This is a type of exploitation of women. Child labor is also a form of exploitation. Unequal treatment of women is also a form of exploitation. Lack of equal rights in property to women in Hindu joint family is a kind of exploitation.According to Muslim law, the man’s wife having 4 wives together, the superior authority of the divorce, creates a woman’s identity as against her and the lack of right to divorce like husband.
Right to religious freedom, education, health, environment rights etc. are human rights. The concept of human rights is no longer limited to protecting the state’s total unity, but its purpose is to create an environment for the development of human personality and to provide an opportunity for it.However, nowadays, judicial activism by using Article 141 and 142 of the Supreme Court Constitution, Article 21 gives excellent judgments about different health and environment. And include human rights, education, health care, and pollution free environment.
Human rights development:
Human rights have been developed by different phases of history. The idea of natural law was that human rights originated in natural thinking. Stoicus was a major contributor to the spread of this thinking. According to Ullaphanya, nature law is the nature of the human being, which guarantees it. In the Middle Ages, natural laws included duties. Slavery was accepted during this time. That is, the sense of human rights accepted has not been accepted at that time.
The importance of human rights:
“Human condition is the creation of the situation or the situation of getting the necessities to live and live properly due to the birth or birth of a human being.” Bribery, corruption, mismanagement and ambition are the enemies of human rights, non-violence and human rights are two sides of a coin. We are walking on the path of social justice, but also reduce the gap.
Humans have a strong system of society, there is the structure of the customs, the state, the administrative system, understands the difference between good and bad. They have adopted the method of repudiation of sins, no one can deny it. Everyone wants peace, so it is desirable to do the right thing and also to maintain it as part of duty.
An unknown person with human rights has been seen breaking the law of human rights, so that all persons are aware of human rights and have the purpose of putting this book in front of us to provide the necessary guidance in the right to enjoy and serve the duty.
It is important that a person can live by self-esteem, enjoy the available facilities, and create the situation that needs to survive.
In today’s case, due to the violation of “human rights”, the details given in this book will be useful and guide to all and it is very important that social change can be done by human beings in harmony with human life.
All countries of the world administer “human rights”. India’s democratic constitution is also a “human rights” prototype.
Therefore, India is a democratic country, instead of implementing the international agreement, it will have to implement the necessary legislation on that subject in the country.
Article-36 to 51 in the Constitution of India, each State shall have to try to increase the respect of duties related to international law, declarations and treaties in the interdependence of organized nations as guided principles of politics.
The current provisions are in the form of guidance. Although not in the form of supremacy, any law of any Indian law has not been amended for the implementation of the contractual agreement. However, the judicial courts of India must provide legal backing to human rights by presenting the existing laws or interpretation of existing laws.
If any law of international law is included in Indian law, Indian courts should try to interpret it in a consistent way with international law.
Government of India has implemented the following laws for the protection of human rights. Some of them were first implemented, some have passed.
– Civil Rights Protection Act, 1955 (12th March, 1955)
– Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 (33 of 1989)
– National Commission for Women Act, 1990 (20th of 1990)
– National Commission for Minority Act, 1992 (19th of 1992)
– Act of Protection of Human Rights, 1993 (10th of 1994)
– National Commission for Backward Classes Act, 1993 (27th of 1993)
– National Security Act of Safai Karmachari, 1993 (64th of 1993)
– Impact Person (Equal Opportunity, Right Defense and Full Participation) Act, 1995 (1st of 1996)
A technical overhaul of the history of human rights:
Human rights have been depleted not just in our country, but in the world and in China. For the protection of these rights, the world’s awakening nations made the worldwide declaration of human rights for the first time in 1948, and before that time, worldwide announcements and manipulation of human rights have been implemented. For example –
1215 – The King of England Approved the Decree (Magnacarta)
1689 – Started the English Builds of Rights, which protects against illegal detention
Habeeius Corps passed the law.
1789 – The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Announcements and announcement of limited rights to women
1791 – The U.S. Statutory law enforcement in the US by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights.
1824 to 1850 – abolition of slavery from British institutions
1850 to 1900 – refers to the agreement in 13 US. S Abolition of slavery from.
1900 to 1925 – Women in Britain got the right to vote (voting).
1945 – United Nations Organization (Wool Charter – 1945)
1984 – Global Declaration of Human Rights Announcement (Summer – 1948)
1949 – Geneva “Red Crosses” Convention.
1950 – Human rights of the European Convention
1961 – European Social Charter
1966 – International Convention of All Forms of Radiation Discrimination
1966 – International Council of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.
1966 – International Council of Civil and Political Rights.
1969 – American Convention of Humorites.
1975 – Helsinki Declaration
1981 – African Charter of Humorites and People’s Rights.
1993 – Act on Human Rights Protection
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The provisions of human rights related laws in India:
Human Rights Protection Act – 1993:
This Act has a separate, omnibus definition of “human rights” for India (Article – 2 (1) (d).
According to this definition “human rights” means guaranteed by the Constitution of India or in international treaties, which may be included and implemented in Indian courts. Human rights are described as the life, liberty, equality and dignity of humans.
Human Rights Commission specialty:
The National Human Rights Commission has been established by the Act of Parliament. And has been approved by the Paris Principles related to the functioning of National Institutes for the Protection and Development of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1993.
National Human Rights Commission composition:
(1) The Central Government will constitute a group which will be known as the National Human Rights Commission. The laws
They will use the given power and will comply with the assigned duties.
(2) Commissions shall be made as follows.
(A) Chairperson who is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Justice:
(B) A member who has been or as a judge of the Supreme Court:
(I) A member who is or is the Chief Judge of the High Court:
(D) Two members who have experience of human rights or have knowledge:
(3) National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women and Ministers, for the minorities, will be considered as members of this commission for the tasks mentioned in clause (b) to (j) of section 12.
(4) There shall be a Secretary-General in the Commission, who shall be regarded as the Chief Executive Officer of the Commission and shall exercise the powers assigned to the Commission and shall act.
(5) The headquarter of the commission will be in Delhi and the office of the Commission, with the prior approval of the central government, can be established in other places of India.
Duties of the Human Rights Commission:
Commissions will perform all or any of the obligations as described below –
(A) Whenever a petition is filed by a spontaneous or victim, or by a person, the following complaint will be complied with –
(1) Human rights violation or assistance,
(2) The carelessness prevented by such public breach by the public servant
(B) When the proceedings are going on for a complaint of human rights violation before a court, conduct a manuscript with the permission of the court.
(C) To inform the State Government in advance, visit any jail or institution, which is in the custody of the State Government Hot and where the persons are detained or treated for the purpose of treatment, improvement or habitat and recommendation on the condition of living conditions of Sahawas.
(D) To protect the rights of human rights, make provisions in the Constitution or other law, evaluate those that are in place, and take action to take effective action.
(E) Evaluate the causes of such impact, including acts of terrorism, which make recommendations for the remedy to take appropriate measures to prevent human rights interference.
(F) To study other international resources and management on human rights and to make recommendations for its effective implementation.
(G) Help in the field of human rights and research.
(H) To disseminate information about human rights between different classes of society and to promote the awareness of the provision of protection for human rights through publications, media, seminars and other available resources.
(E) Promotion of non-governmental organizations and organization’s efforts in the field of human rights.
(J) Other works required for the promotion of manpower
Checks related to human rights commission:
(1) When the Commission investigates the complaint under this law, the procedure of civil procedure, in 1908 The civil court has seven cases to be sued. All the Sati and the following matters, commission and SATA Will remain –
(A) Compel the witness to be summoned and to investigate and investigate on the oath
(B) To invent any document
(C) Receive proof on oath
(D) Any court or office may request a written complaint from the public, or obtain a copy Will be able
(E) Commission for investigation of witnesses and documents
(F) Any other matter that may be fixed or notified.
(2) Subject to any person who has a specific right under the law, subject to commission, no commission But whether a person is useful to the matter related to verifying or related matter or currency The person can be informed about the information and such person can be referred to section 176 of the Indian Penal Code and 177 will be considered legally bound to provide such information.
(3) When we find out the reason for believing that any document related to the investigation is going on , The officer not below the rank of commissioned or commissioned by the commissioned officer When a special Saita is given, they enter the Criminal Procedure Code of any building or place Subject to section 100: This document may be able to capture or retrieve or copy or copy.
(4) The Commission shall be deemed to be a civil court and, while in the presence of the commission or the Indian, accordingly The statement of the accused as shown in section 175, 178, 179, 180 or section 228 of the Penal Code By registering, the magistrator will have the right to run the case and the magistrate will have such a case The case has been sent in accordance with Article 346 of the Criminal Procedure Code sent After hearing the complaint against the accused, the next action will be taken.
(5) For the purposes of section 196 of the Indian Penal Code, as per the sections of section 193 and 228 of the Indian Penal Code, every proceeding against the commission will be considered as a judicial proceeding, and for all purposes of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973, the Commission is considered to be a civil court.
Investigation by the Human Rights Commission:
(1) In order to run any investigation related investigations, the Commission may use the Central Government or any State Government official or the services of the Investigating Office with the consent of the Central Government or the State Government.
(2) Subject to the guidance and control of any officer or office whose services are used for the purposes of investigating the subject matter of inquiry under sub-section (1)
(a) can be forced to appear and be found by anyone to appear summons:
(B) Can be discovered by any document: and
(c) can ask to present any public record or copy of it from any office:
(3) According to sub-section (1), the provision of section 15 of the officer or office of the officer who has been used to give the statement to the person who has been utilized, will apply to any person giving the statement while giving evidence before the Commission.
(4) The officer or office of the officer or office services for the investigation related to the investigation shall submit the report to the commission as long as it is being communicated by the Commission, which is being used by the Commission under sub-section (1).
(5) The Commission shall ensure the authenticity of the facts and the judgment given in the report submitted under sub-section (4) of the Commission, and for the purposes of this, the commission finds itself appropriate (in which any person or persons who have been investigated or Including those who have assisted their investigation).
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Constitution of India and Human Rights
Basic Rights (Article 12 to 35)
Since these rights are labeled as fundamental rights in the Indian Constitution, there is no fundamental right to understand. Because democracy is considered a state welfare state. Everyone must be entitled to these rights for human development. These rights are considered natural (natural) in this sense Basic rights in Part 3 of the Constitution of India have been adopted in paragraph 12 – 35. The stability of the nation, the protection of the person’s freedom and the dictatorship of any one party, fundamental rights are essential for the stability of the nation, protection of individual liberty and the prevention of any one party’s dictatorship.
Right to Equality (Article 14)
“The state of India will not deny anyone a similar protection of equality or laws to the law.”
The concept of “equality before law” is the concept of common common law. When the concept of ‘equal protection of law’ is derived from the American Constitution. Equality before law means lack of privileges in favor of any person or class. Equal protection of law means that a similar law will apply to those who are in a similar situation. Equality of law and equal protection of law are also available to legal individuals, besides living individuals.
Religion, caste, caste, gender or birthplace (Article 15);
(1) The state will not discriminate against any citizen only for religion, caste caste, gender, birthplace or any other of them.
(2) Any citizen,
(A) Access to shops, public havens, hotels and public entertainment venues or
(B) Any discrepancy, liability, control or condition shall be subject to the wells, ponds, baths, roads and public place use, matter, religion, caste, caste, sex, place of birth Not.
(3) In this paragraph no state will prevent a special provision from women and children.
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(4) None of these paragraphs or Article 29 (2) shall not prevent any of the social or educationally backward castes of the citizen from providing special provision for Scheduled Caste development to Scheduled Castes.
Quote equality in Article 370 of Public Employment: (Article 16):
The principle of equality of opportunity for all citizens, in terms of employment or appointment for any vacancies under state, has been fixed from Article 16 (1). This principle has been applied only in state jobs. The principle of equality of opportunity is established here. The assurance from Article 16 (1) is that those who join the service will not be denied the equality of opportunity. In the matter of public employment and appointments under state, where the citizens can not be discriminated against, the list is given in Article 16 (2).These are the reasons that religion, caste, caste, sex, total, birthplace, residence or any other cause of theirs.
In the general rule of Article 16 (1) and Article 16 (2), an exception is exempted from Article 16 (3), according to which no citizen of the state will be disqualified for the purpose of residence only, nor will it be inappropriate for the reason that he Discrimination will not be done for the reason. The state has been persuaded to maintain reserved seats in state services and appointments for those who are not represented in the backward classes of the state, from Article 16 (4).
This Shakti can only be used in favor of backward classes. An exception exceeding 16 (5) is exempted. Does not apply Article 16 to any law or person who has a position in relation to the work of religious or sectarian traditions or a member of a managerial committee who believes in some religion or has some religion in some religion.
End of untouchability (Article 17):
Untouchability is brought to an end. Its behavior in any form is restricted. Execution of any kind of unfairness from untouchability is punishable by law according to law. Parliament passed the Civil Defense Act, 1955 (Protection of Civil Act, 1955) in relation to this Article.
Elkabo’s Elimination (Article 18):
This Article has ended the elcabo. But ‘Bharat Ratna’, ‘Padma Vibhushan’, Padma Bhushan, Field Marshal ‘are not elcobes. Article 18 (2) prohibits acceptance from any foreign state. Article 18 (3) states that a non-citizen, under the state, has a position of profit or a pad of trust, a person can not accept an invitation from a foreign country other than the President’s President.According to Article 18 (4), whoever is a citizen or non-citizen, under the state of profit or the pad of trust is held, it can not accept any gift or allowance or any pad other than the President’s Council, from the foreign state. Prohibition does not apply to military and academic achievements.
Right to Freedom (Article 19):
This Article gives 6 Independents (Six Freedoms) to the citizens of India. In the first part, 6 freedoms have been announced and in the second part it has been provided with reasonable restrictions. Article-1 applies only to citizens. Article-19 only applies to citizens who are not citizens of India.Article-1 does not apply to the person who is not a citizen of India. We will look at the six independents conferred on the guarantees and restrictions on it from Article-19.
Freedom of speech and expression:
Under Article – 19 (1) (A), freedom of speech and expression is given to all citizens of India. It includes Pashtak publishing, radio, film, TV, shows, dance, karate show, public meeting, procession, information gathering and press release independence.
This freedom can be reasonably managed for any of the following reasons:
(1) India’s sovereignty and integrity
(2) state security
(3) Friendly relationships with foreign state
(4) Public administration
(7) contempt of court
(9) incitement of crime
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Freedom to be gathered peacefully and without weapons:
Under Article 19 (1) (b), every citizen of India is given freedom to settle peacefully and without arms. This freedom has two limitations on this freedom. First, the meeting should be silent and the other should be without weapons. This freedom includes the right to remove procedures and to fill public meetings. These independent rules can be put in place in the interest of public order, sovereignty and integrity.
Freedom to form congregations or unions:
Under Article 19 (1) (c), the citizens of India are given the liberty of forming unions or congregations. For the sake of India’s sovereignty and integrity, public order and scruples, reasonable restrictions on this freedom can be placed. Freedom of freelancing freely anywhere in the territory of India.
Under Article – 19 (1) (d), the citizens of India are given freedom to freely move freely across the Indian territory. It is possible to put in place a law on the freedom of the state to put in place the right restrictions to protect the interest of the public or to the interests of the Scheduled Castes.
Independence of staying and settling in any part of India’s territory:
under Article-19 (1) (e), every citizen is given the freedom to live and settle in any part of India. This freedom can be put in good control for the protection of the interest of the general public or the Scheduled Tribes.
Whatever it’s worth. Choreography Freedom of trade or business:
Article-19 (1) (G) gives every citizen the freedom to pursue business, business, business, business. Reasonable restrictions can be placed on this freedom in the interest of the public. Qualifications can be determined for a business, business, business or business.
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Protection Against Complaint for Offenses (Article 20):
This article protects the fundamental rights of the accused. This paragraph can be explained in the following ways:
(1) A person may be convicted for the offense only when he acts as an act that takes place during the act, according to the prevailing law, that act is an offense. If the offense arises according to the prevailing law at the time of taking action. If the act is not a criminal act under the existing law at the time of taking action, then subsequent legislation can not be declared criminal act by the effect of the law.
(2) A person can be punished under the existing law while committing a crime. That is, the punishment punishable under the law, which is in force at the time of the commencement of the offense, can only be awarded to the offender. It can not be punished more by the law.
(3) Article-20 (2) contains the Doctrine of Protection against Double Jupiter: Theory of. This means that one person can not be operated for more than one time for the same crime. If a court having a proper court has punished someone for committing an offense, then he can not be punished by acting against the person in the same crime.
(4) Article-20 (3) protects the accused from the arbitrariness. The criminal principle is the basic principle that no accused can be compelled to give a witness against him. Against whom there is no criminal charge, it can not be forced to become a witness against it. And the law of prohibition is called as a principle against the infinitum.
The Fundamental Right of Life and Personal Freedom (Article 21);
The most important of these formats is the fundamental right. Because it has protected the person’s life and personal independence. This Article says that no one can be deprived of his life and physical independence except according to the procedures established by law.
According to this Article, the basic right of life means that everyone has the right to live with an absorbing human dignity. This includes protecting the health of workers, protecting children from exploitation of children and providing children opportunities and facilities, educational facilities, work and delivery of childbirth relief to grow healthy. Swaraj Environment, Education, Secrecy, Affordable Development etc. are included in this paragraph.Law enforcement means that procedures determined by the state legislation Without following such a procedure, no person’s life or physical freedom can be stripped.
Free and Compulsory Education
All children of the age group of 6 to 14 years who are determined by state law will be given free and non-compulsory education.
The new additions to this Article 2002 have been added. As per this paragraph, the Parliament has passed the law called ‘Right to Education and Compulsory Education Act 2009′ and its implementation Better since April 1, 2010.
Basic Rights of Protection against Detention and Detention (Article-22)
The person arrested on the part of the article has some rights.
(1) It is not possible for anyone to be arrested in prison unless they are informed of the reasons for his arrest as soon as possible.
(2) A person arrested has the right to seek and represent the lawyer.
(3) The arrested person should be presented to the nearest Magistrate within 24 hours. The magistrate should get permission to stay in jail for more than 24 hours.
Human Trade and Secular Prohibition (Article 23)
This article prohibits the formation of any human labor, forced labor and any forced labor. And children or women can not be treated for objective purposes. Sack has been brought to an end. Forced labor, wages or unpaid, restricted. But the state has the power to take compulsory services for public purposes. It can not be forced or forced to labor.
Factories Restriction on hiring children in (Article 24)
This Article protects the rights of the child. No child under the age of 14 years can be kept for work in a factory or mine or any other dangerous job.
Fundamental Rights of Religion, Compliance, and Publicity (Article 25):
Anyone has been given the freedom to believe in any religion and to follow them freely. It also includes religious, propagation of belief, publicity and freedom of compliance. This fundamental right of freedom of religion is subject to the provisions of Public Order, Purity, Health and Constitution Part-3. The state can formulate legislation to provide social welfare and improvement. Sikhism includes the adoption of kirpans in the belief.
Freedom of Administration of Religious Affairs (Article 26)
This sub-section is only of religious freedom mentioned in Article 25. This Article includes the right to establish an institution for religion and charitable purposes, to administer religious functions, to own property and to administer such property. This Article is given to every sect. This article is based on public order, policy and health.
Freedom to pay tax for a certain religion (Article 27);
This Article tells us that no one can be compelled to pay taxes that are used for the promotion of a certain religion or cult, since the State is secular, no amount can be spent for the promotion of any particular religion from the public tax tax.
Freedom of religion not being present in religious education (Article 28)
This Article states that religious education can not be given entirely in the education system run by the state’s financial assistance. According to Article 28 (3), religious education can be given in the state’s recognized education system. But none of them can be forced to attend. According to the Constitution, because our country is secular, no one can be forced to attend religious education.
Protection of the Rights of Minorities (Article-29);
This Article gives every citizen the basic right to maintain his own language, script and culture. This Article also provides that in any educational system receiving state aid, it can not refuse to get access to religion, caste, caste or language or any of these reasons.
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Minority education system and basic governance of its administration (Article 30);
This can be said only as part of Article-29. From this passage, all religious and linguistic minorities have the fundamental right to establish and administer their education. When a compulsory acquisition of the property of such a teaching institution, these minorities also have a fundamental right that without the amounts fixed for the acquisition of such property, the rights under this article can not be canceled.No state can discriminate while supporting minority education.
Basic Rights of Constitutional Remedies (Article 32):
For the protection of the basic rights granted to the constitutional part-3, the constitutional remedy given by this article has also been made a fundamental right. Whenever there is a violation of any basic right, as a remedy, the Supreme Court has the right to receive the following.
(1) captive realization
(5) Right question.
The same way the Act has been given to each High Court under 226.
Regarding postponing basic rights:
As per Article 33, it is permissible to limit or abrogate in relation to the implementation of the basic rights, armaments, or the duties of public administration. According to Article 34, in Parliament where martial law is in force, it is possible for someone to be given an act of gratitude for the act done.When the notification of the emergency is disclosed under Article-352, unless such notification is in force, Article-19 prohibits the basic rights passed to citizens.
Guiding Principles of Politics (Article 37 to 51)
These principles of breaking-4 are the right of citizens in a sense. But the problem is that these principles are non-paperwork and therefore there is no legal remedy in relation to it when it is not implemented. Article 37 provides that these principles are fundamental in governing the country and it will be the duty of the state to apply these principles in making laws. These principles are summarized as follows.
State will achieve social system for welfare (Article-38):
The state will try to achieve a social system by providing social order in which all the information of national life is informed by social, economic and political justice. The state should also strive to try to eliminate the inequality of income and status, facilities, and opportunities between groups of different people.
State should follow some principles of policy (Article-39):
In this article, we decide that the state should follow the policy so that
(A) Both men and women receive equal rights for livelihood.
(B) Physical content is distributed in public.
(C) Property deployment is not possible.
(D) Female man gets equal pay for similar work.
(A) The health and power of male and female workers is not misused.
(F) Children are not forced to work because of economic need.
Equal justice and non-judicial legal aid (Article 39A):
It is mandatory for the state to see that due to economic or other disadvantages, no citizen will be deprived of the opportunity to get justice. The state should enact law for that. Sense had enacted the Legal Services Authorities Act in 1987.
Establishment of Gram Panchayats (Article 40):
SS From this article, the state has been asked to form village Panchayats and give them the necessary strength. The reform of 72 and 7 of the Constitution has paved the way for the formation of Gram Panchayats.
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Right to Work, Education and Support (Article 41):
This Article has asked the state to provide social security to the people. The state has the duty to provide public support, in the capacity of its economic capacity and development, to engage in employment and education, unemployment, and the lack of adolescentness and disability, and the lack of difficulty.
Fair and Fair Conditions of Work and Response of Interest (Article 42):
It is the duty of the state to provide an appropriate provision for the right and fair conditions of the work as well as the appropriate assistance. The State creates laws like Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, Bonu Act 4, 1965.
Employee wages for workers (Article 43):
This Article has been mandated to work for state workers, proper maintenance wages and decent living standards, and workers to get opportunities for social and cultural development in the times of absence. Also, this Article is passed as the State should give rise to the homelessness in rural areas.
Participation in workers’ industries (Article 43A):
This Article has accepted the principle of participation in the workers’ industries. Efforts should be made to take part in the administration of workers’ industries by law or rules.
Equal Civil Act (Article-44):
This Article states that the state should make efforts to build a uniform civil code for the entire Indian territory. Individual laws in the country are largely based on religion scriptures. Like Hindu law, Manusmutism and Muslim law are based on the cross. Instead, you should create a uniform civil code. The Supreme Court has also suggested to the Central Government in this regard in some cases.
Provision for the education of a child under 6 years (Article 45):
This Article has been modified by amendment to 86. In the 10 years from the date of implementation of the constitution as per the old article, the state had to provide free and compulsory education for children upto the age of 14 years. In this matter, the new Article-21 of the Constitution was added in 2002 and the children’s Right and Compulsory Education Rights Act, 2009 has been enacted and its implementation has begun since April 2010.Therefore, in this new paradigm, the replacement of the old article has been ordered to provide for the care and education of the children of children under 6 years of age.
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Care of the interests of Scheduled Castes and Weaker Sections (Article 46):
This Article states that the state will take care of the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections and especially Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and protect them against social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The definition of ‘weaker classes’ has not been given in the format.
Duty to improve nutritional level and standard of living (Article 47):
It is the primary duty of the state that people should nurture the nutritional level and standard of living and rectify public health and bans the use of state-specific drugs and health-harmful substances.
Arrangements for Farming and Animal Husbandry (Article 48):
Article states that the state should manage agriculture and animal husbandry on a modern and scientific basis, and should try to maintain breeding breed of cattle, cattle and other milk, or to improve its breed and to try to ban their slaughter.
Protection of Environment and Wildlife (Article 49):
This article has said that the state should also try to protect the environment and improve it and protect the forests and wildlife of the country.
Protection of Monuments (Article 49):
This Article states that the state should protect against every kind of monument or site of artistic or historic significance declared by national law or under national importance, against robbery, destruction, distortion, migration, disposal or export.
page – 24
Judiciary and the separation of business (Article 50):
In this article, we decide that the state should try to isolate the judiciary from the executive. The constitution clearly states that even though the principle of satyagraction is not accepted. But that theory is implied. Judiciary and business segregation means that each sector operates independently within its own limits and there should be no interference in other areas of one field.
Promotion of International Peace and Security (Article 51):
This Article states that the State (a) encourages international peace and security, (b) to maintain mutual and fair relations between the nations, (c) to increase respect for the duties related to international law and treaties, and (d) the decision of international issues arbitration Should try to promote it.
Basic Duties (Article 51A):
In 42, the constitutional amendment has added new additions to this chapter. Fundamental rights are considered to be the state’s duties in favor of a person. When the basic duties are of a person here No action can be taken under any law for the execution of these duties. The basic duties are as follows:
Every citizen of India should perform the following duties:
A. To remain loyal to the Constitution, honor its ideals, national flag and national anthem.
B. Maintaining and following high ideals that inspire independence of national liberation.
C. Protecting and protecting India’s sovereignty, unity and integrity.
D, National service to protect the nation and if needed.
E. To avoid unity among all the people of India by avoiding religion, language, region or provincial differences, and to create an ethos and to avoid harming women’s dignity;
F, respect and protect the rich years of our culture.
G, scientist man, humanism, curiosity and reformism.
H, protecting public property and not adopting violence.
I, to continue to develop and progress nation, to achieve excellence in all areas of personal and collective activities.
J, the child’s parents or guardians arrange for education for their children aged 6 to 14 years.
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National Human Rights Commission ( NHRC) :
BLOCK C, GPO COMPLEX, IN,A, NEW DELHI – 110023
PHONE NO : 24651330, FAX NO : 24651329
WEBSITE : WWW.nhrc.nic.in
Chairman: justice – K.G.balkrishnan
National Women’s Commission ( NCW) :
4, DINDAYAL UPADHYAN MARG, NEW DELHI – 110002
PHONE NO : 91-11-23237166 , 91-11-23236988
FAX NO : 91-11-23236154
COMPLAIN NO : 91-11-23219750
WEBSITE : www.nce.nic.in
chirman : lalitkumar manglam
National Minority Commission (NCM) :
5TH FLOOR, LOKNAYAK BHAVAN, KHAN MARKET, NEW DELHI – 110003,
PHONE NO : 24615583
FAX NO : 24693302 / 24642645 / 24698410
TOLL FREE NO : 1800 110 088
WEBSITE : www.ncm.nic.in
E-mail : firstname.lastname@example.org
CHIRMAN : NSHIM AHAMAD
National Backward Classes Commission (NCBC) :
TRIKUT – 1, BHIKAJIKAMA PLACE, NEW DELHI -110066
PHONE NO : 26189210 / 26189211 / 26189212
FAX NO : 261832279
WEBSITE : www.ncbc.nic.in
CHAIRMAN : VNGAL ISHWARAIY
National Cleaning Personnel Commission ( NCSK ) :
4TH FLOOR, B, WING, LOKNAYAK BHAVAN, KHAN MARKET, NEW DELHI – 110003
PHONE NO : 24649352 / 24649354 / 24648921
FAX NO : 24648922
WEBSITE : www.ncsk.nic.in
chirman : m. shivnna
National Scheduled Caste commission ( NCSC) :
2ND FLOOR, MAVLANKAR HAVELI, VASHANT CHOWK, LAL DARVAJA, AHEMDABAD – 380001
PHONE NO : 079 – 25509762 / 25510717
WEBSITE : www.ncsc.nic.in
CHIRMAN : DR. P.L.PUNIYA
National Scheduled Tribes Commission ( NCST) :
6TH FLOOR, B WING, LOKNAYAK BHAVAN, KHAN MARKET, NEW DELHI – 110003
PHONE NO : 24635721
FAX NO : 2462462
WEBSITE : www.ncst.nic.in
EMAIL : email@example.com
CHAIRMAN : DR. RAMESHWAR AARON
National Child Protection Commission ( NCPCR) :
5TH FLOOR, CHANDRALOK BUILDING, 36, JANPATH, NEW DELHI – 110001
PHONE NO : 23731583
FAX NO : 23731584
WEBSITE : www.ncpcr.gov.in
EMAIL : firstname.lastname@example.org
CHAIRMAN : SHANTHA SINHA
Gujarat State Human Rights Commission :
NEAR TOWN HALL, SECTOR – 17, GANDHINAGAR – 382017
PHONE NO : 07923257546
CHAIRMAN : HO.DR. JUSTICE J.N.BHATT